What are green bonds?

Green and social impact investing involves purchasing bonds where the proceeds are earmarked for projects which support a low-carbon economy or the basic needs of underserved populations and communities. They help finance a myriad of initiatives, including renewable energy, pollution prevention, access to healthcare, affordable housing and female empowerment.

The green bond market was born in 2007, when the first green bond was issued by the European Investment Bank (EIB). Since then, it has developed very rapidly, counting supranational bodies, corporations, financial institutions, administrations, and public entities and governments among the issuers. In just a decade, green bonds have grown to become a significant international market, attracting the attention of investors engaged in the decarbonisation of assets.

Today, there is still no standard for green bonds. The International Capital Markets Association (ICMA), however, has established the Green Bond Principles, a set of guidelines made available to green bond issuers emphasising that the proceeds from these bonds must be used for projects that are of environmental interest and stressing the importance of transparent reporting.

Why consider investing in green bonds?

The green bond universe has changed significantly since the first issue in 2007. The 2015 Paris Conference on Climate Change (COP21), which set in motion the transition to a low-carbon economy, was a defining moment in this regard. Since then, a series of regulatory changes have been initiated, resulting in increased investor awareness of environmental issues. Green bonds have clearly benefited from this global commitment and the investment universe has grown remarkably.

As a result, green bonds have increasingly attracted the attention of investors engaged in the decarbonisation of their assets, due to the objectives set by the Paris Agreement. They are a potentially attractive instrument for both issuers and investors. On the one hand, the issuer attests to their commitment the energy transition. On the other hand, investors benefit from increased transparency as issuers undertake to publish an annual report setting out the evolution and impact of the financed projects.

As the green bond market grows, the list of issuers, regions and sectors is becoming increasingly diversified, and therefore more attractive to investors. This growing diversification along with a good balance between private and public issuers now enables the universe to offer a potentially attractive risk/return profile, making it a credible alternative to the conventional bond universe.

Green bonds can provide a transparent tool to finance environmentally-friendly projects at no additional cost. The price of a bond normally reflects the financial risk associated with its issuer – the  same applies to a green bond. So, there is no justified structural difference in terms of issue price or financial performance between a green bond and its traditional equivalent. Investors therefore have the opportunity to add transparency and environmental impact to their portfolio without taking additional risks or paying a higher price.

Our Green Bonds strategy

At AXA IM, our Green Bonds strategy is a purist approach which combines our extensive resources in global, active fixed income investing with our proprietary green bond framework and ESG scoring methodology.

Not all green bonds are equal, and it is essential to have a rigorous approach to ensure a real environmental benefit and avoid supporting any ‘green-washing’. At AXA IM, we have developed our own framework for assessment. This framework not only drives responsible investments towards authentic green projects but also looks to raise the standards of the whole market. Our analysts meet many issuers to discuss their businesses and to explain our framework. We also often use these opportunities to engage the issuers by sharing market best practices and areas where they can strengthen their sustainable financing approach. Our goal is to highlight what we expect from them in terms of their issuance, and if necessary, help them improve their broader sustainability related strategy.

Green Bonds strategy

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Our strategy is a purist approach which combines our extensive resources in global, active fixed income investing with our proprietary green bond framework and ESG scoring methodology.

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Our green bond framework

Using AXA IM’s green bonds framework, we seek to invest only in those green bond projects which provide a material benefit to the environment. The aim is that only the most relevant and impactful projects receive the necessary financing.

Our proprietary framework is composed of four pillars for choosing an investment:

  • Does the green bond fit with the bond issuer’s environmental objectives?
  • Will the project have a clear impact beyond the issuer’s business as usual?
  • Do we know that the proceeds will finance what they are supposed to?
  • How does the issuer plan to track the progress of the project and measure impact?


We focus on bonds which provide benefits in one of four key environmental themes:

  • Smart energy solutions
  • Low carbon transportation
  • Green buildings
  • Sustainable ecosystems

We aim to provide transparent and measurable impact metrics focused on UN Sustainable Development Goals contribution towards environmental and societal issues, including: 

  • 3 - Good health and well-being (Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages)
  • 8 - Decent work and economic growth (Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all)
  • 11 - Sustainable cities and communities (Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable)
  • 13- Climate action (Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts)

The targeting of specific SDGs does not imply the endorsement of the United Nations of AXA Investment Managers, its products or services, or of its planned activities and does not constitute, explicitly or implicitly, a recommendation for an investment strategy. 

Our ACT range strategies

Our ACT range is designed to enable our clients to invest in the companies and projects leading the transition to a more sustainable world. These strategies go beyond ESG integration, either following a process in which investment decisions are driven by ESG themes or seeking out intentional, positive, measurable and sustainable impact.

ACT range


There is an economic and human cost to biodiversity loss which is being addressed through products and services contributing to ecosystem preservation and biodiversity mitigation.

ACT range

Clean Economy

Innovative companies are creating solutions to address pressures on scarce natural resources and the need for greenhouse gas emission reduction.

ACT range

Multi-asset impact investing

A world of opportunities to help create a positive impact for people and planet while generating investment returns.

ACT range

US high yield low carbon

We believe the global economy has entered a ‘decade of transition’ towards a more sustainable, de-carbonised model.

ACT range

Social progress

Invest in the companies providing strong social utility by making essential products and services better quality, more affordable and more accessible to all.

ACT range

Social bonds

Rapid growth in the social bonds market offers a compelling opportunity to invest in the social dimension of the transition to a low carbon economy.

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    This document is for informational purposes only and does not constitute investment research or financial analysis relating to transactions in financial instruments as per MIF Directive (2014/65/EU), nor does it constitute on the part of AXA Investment Managers or its affiliated companies an offer to buy or sell any investments, products or services, and should not be considered as solicitation or investment, legal or tax advice, a recommendation for an investment strategy or a personalized recommendation to buy or sell securities.

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